& Bullets

Musings on the worlds of aviation, military and international affairs.


With reviews of books that cover these topics


British recruits 1914

To End All Wars

– How the First World War Divided Britain

Adam Hochschild, Macmillan 2011

ISBN 978-0-230-01396-4

There were four houses at my prep school, all named after famed British military leaders. I was glad to be in Nelson – indisputably one of our most inspirational leaders. The others were Drake and Raleigh -  good merchant adventurers if you are feeling kind, legalised pirates if you are not. The fourth was Haig. As I grew into adulthood I became increasingly uncomfortable about the founding head’s choice of this role model. Hochschild’s book underlines in capitals Douglas Haig’s many deficiencies.  That Hochschild is an American rather than British academic, probably gives him freer rein to sketch Haig’s feet of clay. Even in 1919, Haig was still espousing the merits of the cavalry, judging that in future wars tanks and aircraft would be merely their adjunct. As well as Haig, Hochschild does not spare ink in stressing the incompetence of Sir John French.


A less welcome result of the author’s nationality is the occasional American solecism such as “writing a friend”; or what sounds odd to a European ear: by the end of the war “the Germans had left territory twice the size of Massachusetts in northern France in smoking ruins.” There is also a sprinkling of facts that would hardly enlighten the average British reader “Many of the country’s top generals had graduated from Sandhurst…”


But Hochschild successfully achieves his aim – of providing a narrative of the interaction of the war and European society. It is thus a very useful counterweight to the plethora of more militaristic accounts of WW1.  The book’s prologue is the widespread political and social instability in 1914, across not just the UK but most other European countries.  He chronicles the widespread excitement at the prospect of war (particularly in Germany), which created that irresistible momentum.


Hochschild is irredeemably entranced by the Pankhurst family, but he notes that the declaration of war caused, to the Government’s great relief, the WSPU (the suffragettes) to call a halt to their protests. British politicians welcomed the war’s broader socially unifying impact


To End All Wars has lots of telling asides: well after Russia has mobilised, with their ill trained army clogging up the transport arteries, the Tsarina is still ordering weekly special trains for fresh flowers for the Imperial Palace from the Crimea 1000 miles away.  When the Ottoman Empire came onto the pitch in support of Germany, they called it a jihad. The aristocrat whose last pre-war entry in his game book read “105 partridges”; the next (16 November 1914) read “One Pomeranian”. And did you realise that Germany and Britain were actually trading scarce war materials with each other through the war?



Eager to enlist, thoughts of striking banished...